The nation of Pakistan is a modern creation, but people have been building great cities in the area for some 5,000 years. Five millennia ago, the Indus Valley Civilization created great urban centers at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, both of which are now in Pakistan.
The Indus Valley people mixed with Aryans moving in from the north during the second millennium B.C. Combined, these peoples are called the Vedic Culture; they created the epic stories upon which Hinduism is founded.
Alexander the Great destroyed the Achaemenids in 334 B.C., establishing Greek rule as far as the Punjab. After Alexander's death 12 years later, the empire was thrown into confusion as his generals divided up the satrapies; a local leader, Chandragupta Maurya, seized the opportunity to return the Punjab to local rule. Nonetheless, Greek and Persian culture continued to exert a strong influence on what is now Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Another important religious development occurred in the 8th century A.D., when Muslim traders brought their new religion to the Sindh region. Islam became the state religion under the Ghaznavid Dynasty (997-1187 A.D.).
A succession of Turkic/Afghan dynasties ruled the region through 1526, when the area was conquered by Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur was a descendant of Timur (Tamerlane), and his dynasty ruled most of South Asia until 1857, when the British took control. After the so-called Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, was exiled to Burma by the British.
Great Britain had been asserting ever-increasing control through the British East India Company since at least 1757. The British Raj, the time when South Asia fell under direct control by the UK government, lasted until 1947.
Pakistan in different forms and in different backgrounds has appeared many a time in these very regions and endured longer than other independent states of this sub-continent, making enormous contribution to civilization. The history of its people is full of colour, thrill and excitement; of gallant deeds and sublime performance. It has, perhaps, witnessed more invasions than any other part of the world, absorbed more racial strains than any other region and more ideas have taken birth in the bosom of this land than elsewhere.
It was in these lands that the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the most brilliant in the annals of human history, flourished with its main centres at Moenjo Daro in Sind, Harappa in the Punjab, Kej in the Baluch territory and Judeiro Daro in the Pathan region. It was here that Buddhist culture blossomed and reached its zenith under the Kushans in the form of Gandhara civilization at the twin cities of Peshawar and Taxila. It was on this very soil that the Graeco-Bactrian civilization had its best flowering and left the indelible marks of finest Greek art in the potwar plateau around Rawalpindi. The entire Baluchistan is strewn with the remains of the earliest products of man’s activities. “Western Pakistan is a region which has been conspicuously important in the development of civilization.” (Pakistan and Western Asia, By Prof. Norman Brown. Pakistan Miscellany).
In valour and patriotism the people of these lands have been second to none. It was the people of the Indus Valley that held back the Aryans for decades; it was in the Punjab that the advance of ferocious Mongols was halted for more than a century. But for this defence the tender sapling of Muslim state planted at Delhi in the early 13th century A.D. would have been trampled upon and smothered out. Among more recent events the stiff resistance that Napier encountered from the Sindis and Baluchis is still fresh in our minds. The revolt of the ‘hurs’ of Sind against British rule in the 20th century is another glorious mark in this series. Pathans’ defiance of the British rule and their perpetual struggle in the cause of freedom is a story of only the other day. Kashmiris have suffered silently but never ceased their fight for freedom. The war of Independec 1857, bares testimony of the spirits, valour, soul and courge of the people to get rid of suffocating menace of colonialism.
The lands are indeed drenched with the blood of many a hero and saturated with the wisdom of many a sage. And what is more exhilarating, it was from these lands that Islam commenced its journey in the sub-continent.
Creation of Pakistan
Pakistan's Islamic history began with the arrival of Muslim traders in the 8th century. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Mogul Empire dominated most of South Asia, including much of present-day Pakistan.
British traders arrived in South Asia in 1601, but the British Empire did not consolidate control of the region until the latter half of the 18th century. After 1850, the British or those influenced by them governed virtually the entire subcontinent.
In the early 20th century, South Asian leaders began to agitate for a greater degree of autonomy. Growing concern about Hindu domination of the Indian National Congress Party, the movement's foremost organization, led Muslim leaders to form the all-India Muslim League in 1906. In 1913, the League formally adopted the same objective as the Congress -- self-government for India within the British Empire -- but Congress and the League were unable to agree on a formula that would ensure the protection of Muslim social, religious, economic, cultural and political rights. Muslims in the north of British India, represented by the Muslim League and its leader, QUID E AZAM Muhammad Ali Jinnah, objected to joining the independent nation of India after World War II. As a result, the parties agreed to a Partition of India based on TWO NATION THEORY. Hindus and Sikhs would live in India proper, while Muslims got the new nation of Pakistan.
The idea of a separate Muslim state emerged in the 1930s. On March 23, 1940, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League, formally endorsed the "Lahore Resolution," calling for the creation of an independent state in regions where Muslims constituted a majority.
At the end of World War II, the United Kingdom moved with increasing urgency to grant India independence. However, the Congress Party and the Muslim League could not agree on the terms for a constitution or establishing an interim government. In June 1947, the British Government declared that it would bestow full dominion status upon two successor states -- India and Pakistan. Under this arrangement, the various princely states could freely join either India or Pakistan. Consequently, a bifurcated Muslim nation separated by more than 1,600 kilometers (1,000 mi.) of Indian territory emerged when Pakistan became a self-governing dominion within the Commonwealth on August 14, 1947. West Pakistan comprised the contiguous Muslim-majority districts of present-day Pakistan; East Pakistan consisted of a single province, which is now Bangladesh.
Among the princely states who were to choose accession; Hyderabad and Junagarh had Muslim rulers but Majority Hindu population while Kashmir has Muslim majority population but a Hindu Dogra ruler. Hyderabad and Juna Gurh being Hindu dominated areas were occupied by India. Whereas the same principal was violated in case of Kashmir whose people still long for the UN recognized right for self determination.
The Maharaja signed accession papers in October 1947 and asked Indian troops to prevent people revolt. The Government of Pakistan, however, refused to recognize the accession and campaigned to reverse the decision in line with the principle of the partition as well as the right of people to choose. The status of Kashmir hence remain unresolved though fully recognised by all the international communities and in specific by UNO.
BASIC FACTS OF PAKISTAN
|Official Name||Islamic Republic of Pakistan|
|Founder Of Pakistan||Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1877-1948)|
|National Poet-Philosopher||Allama Mohammad Iqbal (1877-1938)|
|Head of State||President, Mamnoon Hussain|
|Head of Government||Prime Minister, Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif|
|National Day||23rd March|
|Independence Day||14th August|
Approved in August, 1954
Verses composed by:Hafeez Jallundhri
Tune Composed by: Ahmad G.Chagla
Duration: 80 Seconds
|National bird||Chakor (red-legged partridge)|
|National Tree||Decodar (Cedrus Deodara)|
|Official Map||Drawn by Mian Mahmoon Alam Suhrawardy|
|Religion||Muslim 96.3% Others (Christian, Hindu Sikhs, Parsees) 3.7%|
Urdu (National) and English
|Annual Per Capita Income||US$1,512 (2014-15)|
|Population||184.35 Million (Urban 71.07 and Rural 113.28)|
*4 Provinces(Balochistan, Khyber, Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh.
*Federally Administratered Tribal Areas
*Azad Jammu & Kasmir & Gilgit-Baltistan have their own respective Political and Administrative machinery. Federal Government takes care of certain subjects through the Minisry of Kashmir Affairs